From these documents, what do you learn of the British people's reaction to American resistance? . The Massachusetts Circular got Parliament’s attention, and in 1768, Lord Hillsborough sent four thousand British troops to Boston to deal with the unrest and put down any potential rebellion there. Thanks to the Townshend Revenue Act of 1767, however, these officials no longer relied on colonial leadership for payment. Like the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts produced controversy and protest in the American colonies. Textbook content produced by OpenStax is licensed under a and DAUGHTERS of LIBERTY, REACTIONS: THE NON-IMPORTATION MOVEMENT. and Opposite the Town-Pump, [in] The new customs board was based in Boston and would severely curtail smuggling in this large colonial seaport. They are named after Charles Townshend, the Chancellor of the Exchequer who proposed the program. This "binding" power became clear to Americans with five parliamentary enactments in 1767 and 1768 known as the Townshend Acts. What are the characteristics of the persona John Dickinson assumes in his letters "from a Farmer in Pennsylvania"? No more Ribbons wear, nor in rich dress appear, would not buy any one thing of Notice the subtle details Revere uses to help convince the viewer of the civilians’ innocence and the soldiers’ cruelty. Women resumed spinning bees and again found substitutes for British tea and other goods. Artists' depictions of the arrival of British troops in Boston, 1768. Might it be, as David Ramsay mused in 1789, that had Parliament repealed the Acts in their entirety, the "union of the two countries might have lasted for ages"? Or why may not every colony be treated in the same manner, when any of them shall dare to deny their assent to any impositions that shall be directed?" In early 1768, the Massachusetts colonial assembly asked Samuel Adams to draft a circular letter to be sent to all other colonial legislatures regarding the Revenue Act. Colonists responded to the Townshend Acts with a nonimportation agreement. The colonists resiste… Want to cite, share, or modify this book? Illustrations of this event are among the few American-created images of the early revolutionary era, so dramatic was the effect on the colonial psyche. For there’ll soon be enough here to suit ye; For a second time, many colonists resented what they perceived as an effort to tax them without representation and thus to deprive them of their liberty. We recommend using a The administrative and enforcement provisions under the Townshend Acts—the American Board of Customs Commissioners and the vice-admiralty courts—remained in place. Why was he disturbed with the lack of immediate outrage over Britain's threat to suspend the New York assembly? As there is ample material for group study and presentation, the selections are designed to be divided among students and not assigned in their entirety. The verses below the image begin as follows: “Unhappy Boston! David Ramsay, The History of the American Revolution, 1789. John Dickinson, Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, Letters 1 & 2. In Massachusetts in 1768, Samuel Adams wrote a letter that became known as the Massachusetts Circular. . George III duly dismissed Rockingham. At first, colonists were uncertain as to what the appropriate response to the Townshend duties would be. (16 pp. Townshend also orchestrated the Vice-Admiralty Court Act, which established three more vice-admiralty courts, in Boston, Philadelphia, and Charleston, to try violators of customs regulations without a jury. In their jubilance over the repeal of the Stamp Act in 1766, few Americans heeded an action taken by Parliament on the same day. To many Americans—those who had condemned the Stamp Act as coercive and unconstitutional—the Townshend Acts were sheer despotism. REACTIONS: THE NON-IMPORTATION MOVEMENT. Although the victory greatly expanded the empire’s imperial holdings, it also left it with a massive national debt, and the British government looked to its North American colonies as an untapped source of revenue. For a second time, many colonists resented what they perceived as an effort to tax them without representation and thus to deprive them of their liberty. Posterity, for ever and ever, AMEN. It was not only British Loyalists who condemned the unruly mob. then you must include on every physical page the following attribution: If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a digital format, Townshend’s first act was to deal with the unruly New York Assembly, which had voted not to pay for supplies for the garrison of British soldiers that the Quartering Act required. Let a friend at this season advise you: In 1765, Parliament had imposed a Quartering Act that required the colonial assemblies to provided basic necessities for British soldiers stationed within their confines. Lord Fredereick North repealed the Townshend Acts because it damaged trade, but a small tax on tea was retained as a symbol of Parliament's power over the colonies Mar 5, … The legislation, which was intended to reassert British power in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, provoked outrage and resistance from the thirteen colonies. Many Bostonians, led by the Sons of Liberty, mounted a campaign of harassment against British troops. "If they may be legally deprived . "We are therefore—SLAVES," warned John Dickinson in his widely read newspaper essays, published as Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, that laid out the unique dangers within Parliament's moves. and hasten their final Revolt: For the Seeds of Liberty are universally sown there, and nothing can eradicate them." A clear statement of who's boss. of the privilege of legislation, why may they not, with equal reason, be deprived of every other privilege? Social Studies. Colonists’ joy over the repeal of the Stamp Act and what they saw as their defense of liberty did not last long. On March 28 1774 British Parliament adopted the Intolerable Acts. "Every Act of Oppression will sour their Tempers," warned Franklin, " . It actually paid the salaries of some royally appointed judges, governors, and other officials whom the colonial assemblies had traditionally paid. It was the first time the British government had resorted to military force to impose its will on America. The _____ was a colonial reaction to … As brocades, yet be not in a passion, While he maintained too high a profile to work actively with the Sons of Liberty, he was known to support their aims, if not their means of achieving them. They answered Yes, by God, root and branch! What would explain the change? What, if homespun they say is not quite so gay citation tool such as, Authors: P. Scott Corbett, Volker Janssen, John M. Lund, Todd Pfannestiel, Sylvie Waskiewicz, Paul Vickery. Like the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts produced controversy and protest in the American colonies. . Long after the British soldiers had been tried and punished, the Sons of Liberty maintained a relentless propaganda campaign against British oppression. –In Letter One, he calls for more vocal outrage against Parliament's threat to suspend the New York assembly for its failure to comply fully with the Quartering Act. Dickinson sees no difference between such legislative compulsion and the use of troops. One and all will cry out, ’tis the fashion! The Massachusetts Circular Letter b. John Dickinson’s Letters From a Farmer in Pennsylvania c. The Stamp Act Congress d. Colonial boycotts of British goods e. The Gaspee incident A6: C The Townshend Act was created by Charles Townshend. After renewed violence two years later in 1770 (see Section #6), but primarily due to the demands of strapped British merchants, Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts—except for the tax on tea, which generated the most revenue and served as a symbol of parliamentary authority. From these documents, characterize the range of Americans' responses to the Townshend Acts, the Quartering Act, and the arrival of British troops in Boston. Why did he argue that taxes levied to raise revenues are unjust? . !O! disgrace upon themselves, and their '"1 This absolutist position, especially in Britain's anti-smuggling enforcements, made tempers rise to new levels among New Englanders, especially Bostonians, who rioted after tax officials confiscated the merchant ship of John Hancock, a high-visibility leader of resistance. National Humanities Center Colonists Respond to the Townshend Acts, 1767-1770 4 such goods shall be re-shipped or stored, and such Negroes re-shipped from this province, and not by any means offered for sale therein. In the innocuously named Declaratory Act, Parliament firmly asserted its authority to legislate for the colonies and "bind the colonies and people of America . John Hancock was one of Boston’s most successful merchants and prominent citizens. The Daughters of Liberty once again supported and promoted the boycott of British goods. . When British troops were sent to Boston to enforce order, all felt that a line had been crossed. If you are redistributing all or part of this book in a print format, To such as will wear London Fact’ry: He led Great Britain through most of the American War of Independence.He also held a number of other cabinet posts, including Home Secretary and Chancellor of the Exchequer. They could not use the same strong-arm tactics they had used against the stamp … First, an overview: The blandness of this list belies the impact of the acts and the implied ultimatum from Parliament—submit or else. Building on the protest of the 1765 Stamp Act by the Daughters of Liberty, the non-importation movement of 1767–1768 mobilized women as political actors. covers, OpenStax CNX name, and OpenStax CNX logo are not subject to the Creative Commons license and may The Townshend Acts generated a number of protest writings, including “Letters from a Pennsylvania Farmer” by John Dickinson. Historians vary slightly as to which acts they include under the heading "Townshend Acts", but five are often listed: The New York Restraining Act … The English Empire, 1660–1763, The Glorious Revolution and the English Empire, An Empire of Slavery and the Consumer Revolution, Imperial Reforms and Colonial Protests, 1763-1774, Confronting the National Debt: The Aftermath of the French and Indian War, The Stamp Act and the Sons and Daughters of Liberty, The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts, Disaffection: The First Continental Congress and American Identity, America's War for Independence, 1775-1783, Britain’s Law-and-Order Strategy and Its Consequences, Creating Republican Governments, 1776–1790, Common Sense: From Monarchy to an American Republic, The Constitutional Convention and Federal Constitution, Growing Pains: The New Republic, 1790–1820, Competing Visions: Federalists and Democratic-Republicans, Industrial Transformation in the North, 1800–1850, On the Move: The Transportation Revolution, A New Political Style: From John Quincy Adams to Andrew Jackson, The Nullification Crisis and the Bank War, A Nation on the Move: Westward Expansion, 1800–1860, Free Soil or Slave? This compilation, one of a series in this Theme CRISIS, includes broadsides, poems, declarations, and debates on the Townshend Acts and on the merchants' nonimportation (boycott) agreements. For instance, a broadside from 1769–1770 reads: WILLIAM JACKSON, He was also one of the many prominent merchants who had made their fortunes by smuggling, which was rampant in the colonial seaports. Frederick North, 2nd Earl of Guilford, KG, PC (13 April 1732 – 5 August 1792), better known by his courtesy title Lord North, which he used from 1752 to 1790, was Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1770 to 1782. How did Patriots and Loyalists convey their views through the media outlets of the time? For in passing the Townshend Acts, stresses historian Forrest MacDonald, "Britain was making the most dangerous of all political blunders: it was stating its position clearly and as an absolute. Basically, the colonists didn't take too kindly to the act at all. Why would he depict the author of the letters in such a way? On that night, a crowd of Bostonians from many walks of life started throwing snowballs, rocks, and sticks at the British soldiers guarding the customs house. Once again, merchants who lost money because of the boycott strongly pressured Parliament to loosen its restrictions on the colonies and break the non-importation movement. What goals did Dickinson hope to achieve with his letters? The boycott in 1768–1769 turned the purchase of consumer goods into a political gesture. What do you think most people in the United States think of when they consider the Boston Massacre? This threat had the effect of pushing the other colonies to Massachusetts’s side. What arguments in his letters might he have used to support this position? Strange things may soon hap and surprize you: The hated British troops in Boston departed. For a second time, colonists had rescued liberty from an unconstitutional parliamentary measure. For a second time, many colonists resented what they perceived as an effort to tax them without representation and … REACTIONS: THE NON-IMPORTATION MOVEMENT. Why did many Americans remain loyal to Great Britain and oppose rebellion? This was another example of a tax the colonists felt was unfair. Shortly after the incident outside the customs house, Paul Revere created “The bloody massacre perpetrated in King Street Boston on March 5th 1770 by a party of the 29th Regt.” (Figure 5.11), based on an image by engraver Henry Pelham. Love your country much better than fine things, of economy boast, let your pride be the most 1. boycott 2. smuggling 3. second continental congress 4. boston tea party answer choices are; stamp act, intolerable act, townshend act, sugar and molasses act Although eyewitnesses said the crowd started the fight by throwing snowballs and rocks, in the engraving they are innocently standing by. Townshend Acts. Colonists respond to the Townshend Acts, 1767-1770. North convinced Parliament to drop all the Townshend duties except the tax on tea. Indeed, the very clothes you wore indicated whether you were a defender of liberty in homespun or a protector of parliamentary rights in superfine British attire. These British goods had to be imported, since the colonies did not have the manufacturing base to produce them. Procure a good store of the choice Labradore, Boston’s labor system had traditionally been closed, privileging native-born laborers over outsiders, and jobs were scarce. This effect is apparent (if you turn on your eighteenth-century eyes) in the three depictions presented here, one by Paul Revere and two by Christian Remick, a sailor and occasional artist. Colonists' Reactions Colonists took action against the British in opposition to the Sugar Act. Townshend hoped the new duties would not anger the colonists because they were external taxes, not internal ones like the Stamp Act. The Revenue Act thus appeared to sever the relationship between governors and assemblies, drawing royal officials closer to the British government and further away from the colonial legislatures. Guide your dialogue to a conclusion among the speakers, or an acknowledgment that no conclusion can be reached. Many colonial merchants signed non-importation agreements, and the Daughters of Liberty urged colonial women to shop only with those merchants. Westward Expansion, 1840-1900, The Loss of American Indian Life and Culture, The Impact of Expansion on Chinese Immigrants and Hispanic Citizens, Industrialization and the Rise of Big Business, 1870-1900, Building Industrial America on the Backs of Labor, The Growing Pains of Urbanization, 1870-1900, The African American “Great Migration” and New European Immigration, Political Corruption in Postbellum America, The Key Political Issues: Patronage, Tariffs, and Gold, Leading the Way: The Progressive Movement, 1890-1920, The Origins of the Progressive Spirit in America, New Voices for Women and African Americans, Age of Empire: American Foreign Policy, 1890-1914, The Spanish-American War and Overseas Empire, American Isolationism and the European Origins of War, Demobilization and Its Difficult Aftermath, The Jazz Age: Redefining the Nation, 1919-1929, Prosperity and the Production of Popular Entertainment, Republican Ascendancy: Politics in the 1920s, Brother, Can You Spare a Dime? V. That we will not purchase from, or sell for, any masters of … Four years after the end of the French and Indian War, the Empire continued to search for solutions to its debt problem and the growing sense that the colonies needed to be brought under control. The military required funding because it was in debt from the Indian War. However, back in Great Britain, the secretary of state for the colonies—Lord Hillsborough—demanded that Massachusetts retract the letter, promising that any colonial assemblies that endorsed it would be dissolved. The Indemnity Act of 1767 exempted tea produced by the British East India Company from taxation when it was imported into Great Britain. How did the colonies respond to the call for unity in Samuel Adams's circular letter from Massachusetts? This change gave them a measure of independence from the assemblies, so they could implement parliamentary acts without fear that their pay would be withheld in retaliation. The consumption of British goods skyrocketed after the partial repeal, an indication of the American colonists’ desire for the items linking them to the Empire. Paul Revere, a silversmith and member of the Sons of Liberty, circulated an engraving that showed a line of grim redcoats firing ruthlessly into a crowd of unarmed, fleeing civilians. What major advantage did the colonists have over the British during the Revolutionary War? Stamp Act. REACTIONS: THE NON-IMPORTATION MOVEMENT. To Britain and many colonists, the acts were a legitimate use of imperial authority to finance and secure the colonies. However, Pitt was old and ill with gout. It goes on to discuss this version of the events: “On hearing the noise, one Samuel Atwood came up to see what was the matter; and entering the alley from dock square, heard the latter part of the combat; and when the boys had dispersed he met the ten or twelve soldiers aforesaid rushing down the alley towards the square and asked them if they intended to murder people? For many colonists, this distinction was critical: Parliament can legitimately tax the colonies to regulate trade but not to raise revenue. And love you much stronger than ever. –In Letter Two, he begins by acknowledging that the colonies are part of the British Empire and that Great Britain has authority over them. The Sons of Liberty circulated this sensationalized version of the events of March 5, 1770, in order to promote the rightness of their cause. For a second time, many colonists resented what they perceived as an effort to tax them without representation and … To those who had protested the Townshend Acts for several years, the partial repeal appeared to be a major victory. Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 license. British soldiers crushed the riots, but over the next few years, clashes between British officials and Bostonians became common. see thy Sons deplore, Thy hallowed Walks besmeared with guiltless Gore.”, https://openstax.org/books/us-history/pages/1-introduction, https://openstax.org/books/us-history/pages/5-3-the-townshend-acts-and-colonial-protest, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, Describe the purpose of the 1767 Townshend Acts, Explain why many colonists protested the 1767 Townshend Acts and the consequences of their actions. Adams wrote, “It is, moreover, [the Massachusetts House of Representatives] humble opinion, which they express with the greatest deference to the wisdom of the Parliament, that the acts made there, imposing duties on the people of this province, with the sole and express purpose of raising a revenue, are infringements of their natural and constitutional rights; because, as they are not represented in the Parliament, his Majesty’s Commons in Britain, by those acts, grant their property without their consent.” Note that even in this letter of protest, the humble and submissive tone shows the Massachusetts Assembly’s continued deference to parliamentary authority. Reactions to the Townshend Act was that the colonist educated Americans were outraged and every women of every rank in society became involved in demonstrations and to boycott tea and materials brought into the US The Revenue Act also gave the customs board greater powers to counteract smuggling. Charles Townshend was a member of the House of Commons when he convinced Parliament to impose a new tax on the American colonies in 1767. (5 pp.). In fact, the revenue collected from these duties was only nominally intended to support the British army in America. Rich landowners feared that if he were not taxing the colonies, Parliament would raise their taxes instead, sacrificing them to the interests of merchants and colonists. Every law passed by Parliament relating to the colonies, including the imposition of taxes, has been based upon its authority to regulate trade — every law, that is, except the Stamp Act, which was passed simply to raise revenue. Corn-hill, BOSTON Young ladies in town, and those that live round, This compilation, one of a series in this Theme CRISIS, includes broadsides, poems, declarations, and debates on the Townshend Acts and on the merchants' nonimportation (boycott) agreements. As it turned out, the Boston Massacre occurred after Parliament had partially repealed the Townshend Acts. The reaction of the American colonists to the Tea Act came as a shock to the British. Many issues remained unresolved. © Sep 1, 2020 OpenStax. COMPILATION: Colonists respond to the Townshend Acts, The American Revolution: A Documentary History, Massachusetts Circular Letter to the colonial legislatures, The Coming of the American Revolution, 1764-1776, British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1763-1766, British Reforms and Colonial Resistance, 1767-1772, Making the Revolution: America, 1763-1791, Artists' depictions of the arrival of British troops in Boston, 1768. The colonists were unhappy with the passage of the Townshend Acts. In 1765, the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act, the first direct, internal tax that it had ever levied on the colonists. For examples of the types of luxury items that many American colonists favored, visit the National Humanities Center to see pictures and documents relating to home interiors of the wealthy. The Restraining Act, which had been intended to isolate New York without angering the other colonies, had the opposite effect, showing the rest of the colonies how far beyond the British Constitution some members of Parliament were willing to go. Sent by the Massachusetts House of Representatives to the other colonial legislatures, the letter laid out the unconstitutionality of taxation without representation and encouraged the other colonies to again protest the taxes by boycotting British goods. Wear none but your own country linnen; Dickinson's writings were widely read and admired in the colonies, and political resistance to the Townshend duties sprung forth. "Nervous tension" is the term that best describes it. Great Britain’s response to this threat of disobedience served only to unite the colonies further. In 1766, in arguing before Parliament for the repeal of the Stamp Act, Benjamin Franklin had stated, “I never heard any objection to the right of laying duties to regulate commerce; but a right to lay internal taxes was never supposed to be in parliament, as we are not represented there.”. The Declaratory Act was a reaction of British Parliament to the failure of the Stamp Act as they did not want to give up on the principle of imperial taxation asserting its legal right to tax colonies. Begin without passion, ’twill soon be the fashion But to others, the attacking mob was equally to blame for pelting the British with rocks and insulting them. Did the arguments follow strict Loyalist-vs.-Patriot divisions? In fact, the British believed the act would increase trade between the colonists and England. By the late 1760s, the American boycott of British goods had drastically reduced British trade. **** Most colonists supported the . After the Stamp Act was repealed, the relationship between England and the American colonies was still shaky. The Townshend Revenue Act of 1767 placed duties on various consumer items like paper, paint, lead, tea, and glass. What might have been the impressions of Americans at the time? In the Boston Gazette on March 12, 1770, an article describes the soldiers as striking first. They had repealed an earlier tax called the Stamp Act because of colonial protests, but thought that taxes on imports would be okay. REACTIONS: THE NON-IMPORTATION MOVEMENT. This act was made so that there was a small indirect tax on glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea. Primary among these was raising the needed revenue from the colonies. The Declaratory Act of 1766 had articulated Great Britain’s supreme authority over the colonies, and Parliament soon began exercising that authority. What was the most hated tax act by the colonists, and was completely repealed after the boycotts and violence against tax collectors? Between 1763 and 1775, what changed many Americans from loyal British subjects to rebellious Patriots? In 1768, customs officials seized the Liberty, one of his ships, and violence erupted. How does the propaganda of the Sons of Liberty still affect the way we think of this event? In this influential pamphlet, which circulated widely in the colonies, Dickinson conceded that the Empire could regulate trade but argued that Parliament could not impose either internal taxes, like stamps, on goods or external taxes, like customs duties, on imports. First then, throw aside your high top knots of pride are licensed under a, The Americas, Europe, and Africa Before 1492, Early Globalization: The Atlantic World, 1492–1650, Portuguese Exploration and Spanish Conquest, Religious Upheavals in the Developing Atlantic World, New Worlds in the Americas: Labor, Commerce, and the Columbian Exchange, Creating New Social Orders: Colonial Societies, 1500–1700, Colonial Rivalries: Dutch and French Colonial Ambitions, Rule Britannia! The colonies’ initial response to the Massachusetts Circular was lukewarm at best. Even in that hotbed of political protest, it is a clear expression of allegiance and the hope for a restoration of “natural and constitutional rights.”. Our mission is to improve educational access and learning for everyone. What were Americans' arguments for and against the non-importation agreements? Conflict turned deadly on March 5, 1770, in a confrontation that came to be known as the Boston Massacre. In what ways do they reflect a change? How do Revere and Remick differ in depicting the mass arrival of occupying troops in Boston harbor? What similar response did they hope to achieve in the viewer? Notice that the writer especially encourages women to avoid British tea (Bohea and Green Hyson) and linen, and to manufacture their own homespun cloth. How are the depictions acts of protest in themselves? The Townshend Acts were specifically to pay for the salaries of officials such as governors and judges. Dickinson refused to sign the Declaration of Independence because he believed that America could not sustain itself as an independent nation. him, for in so doing they will bring Under this agreement colonists would stop importing goods taxed by the Townshend Acts. Create a dialogue among two to four persons represented in these readings. Revere also depicts the crowd as well dressed and well-to-do, when in fact they were laborers and probably looked quite a bit rougher. As an added aggravation, British soldiers moonlighted as dockworkers, creating competition for employment. Henry’s charge against the Stamp Act set other activities in motion. 4.0 and you must attribute OpenStax. Many of them were printers or engravers, and they were able to use public media to sway others to their cause. Like the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts produced controversy and protest in the American colonies. How did the colonists react to the Stamp Act? How do they convey the impression of "occupation"? Was the American Revolution inevitable? The OpenStax name, OpenStax logo, OpenStax book ), PRIMARY SOURCES IN HISTORY, LITERATURE, AND THE ARTS. Even the city of Philadelphia, which had originally opposed the Circular, came around. In 1767, with the passage of the Townshend Acts, a tax on consumer goods in British North America, colonists believed their liberty as loyal British subjects had come under assault for a second time. He didn’t care about the colonist; he just wanted Parliament to … Some petitioned and boycotted the act; eventually all taxes were repealed except for the tax on tea.