If the question is not part of the quote, it goes outside. ¶ It is the indispensable reference for writers, editors, proofreaders, indexers, copywriters, designers, and publishers, informing the editorial canon with sound, definitive advice. The Chicago Manual of Style. Thus: He said, "We need to tell the boss right away." Often found within newspapers to save printing space, an ellipsis formally conveys how part of the sentence or quote is missing from the original statement. Why do periods and commas go inside quotation marks in MLA style? Digital typographers can close up the gap: In British style, spacing issues are less pronounced because it uses single quotation marks instead of double, and commas and periods are placed outside the quotation marks: ‘You’ve got to be carefully taught’, wrote Oscar Hammerstein II. The standard rule in American punctuation is that periods go inside quotation marks, as do most commas, even if the punctuation is not part of the quote. But if you are preparing a paper for a class or for publication in the United States, place periods and commas inside quotation marks. Punctuation marks such as periods, commas, and semicolons should appear after the parenthetical citation. That’s always true—whether the quotation appears at the beginning of the sentence, in the middle of the sentence, or at the very end. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed. the quotation within double quotation marks and incorporate it into your text. There are also times when parenthetical sentences occur outside of a complete sentence. "The windows misted over from the heat and the smoke inside” (Hemingway 1). 2nd ed., Hartley and Marks, 1999. Get a subscription and … for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. As you might have noticed, parentheses consist of two brackets: The standard rule for parentheses is that they all must open and close. ... (from a number of sources) and paste it into your essay. Periods stay outside of parentheses for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. First mention or direct quote from the source: (Surname 201). The three most common ways to use parentheses is to insert accessory information into your writing, provide an abbreviation for a long, formal title, or to provide a citation for quoted material. Note that the quotation marks are outside the end punctuation of the quote; the rest of the sentence has its own end punctuation. In American usage, commas and periods at the end of quotes always go inside the quotation marks. Does the “Period goes inside quotation marks” apply to period/any punctuation mark goes inside parentheses? 1. For example. Example of a Long Quotation MLA format omits commas and page abbreviations for in-text citations while parenthesizing the author’s last name and page number(s). Citing multiple sources: (Surname 201; Surname 401). In either case, the question mark and exclamation point are exclusive to the parenthetical clause, and the rest of the sentence should end with a period. For example, First mention: “Senators disclose 2022 budget for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).”, Subsequent mentions: “NASA prepares to negotiate the budget to meet their financial needs for 2022.”. ... an anthology, include the title in quotations marks instead. For example, Correct: “I’m a complete sentence (a fun one at that), but I’m also an example.”, Incorrect: “I’m a complete sentence, (a fun one at that), but I’m also an example.”, Like many sentences with parenthetical clauses, we can use parentheses similarly to commas or em-dashes. Sources: The period at the end of the quotation comes before your in-text citation as opposed to after, as it does with regular quotations. Lastly, we can use parentheses to disclose official acronyms or abbreviations for titles or proper names. We use periods to mark the end of a sentence and parentheses to insert additional content. 201–202). If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. In American writing, commas and periods almost always go inside quotation marks. Quotations placed at the end of a sentence. According to the film critic, "One of the most widely acclaimed actors in history, Humphrey Bogart, is quoted as saying, 'I don't like acting.'" For example. Note that a period becomes a comma if the quote isn't at the end of the sentence: When I told them "I'm moving out," they were shocked. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. Citing an uploaded science magazine article, Formatting references in block quotations. The MLA Handbook notes, “By convention, commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks” (88). For example. Writing a sentence without an opening and a closing parenthesis is like writing a sentence without a period. It also includes useful advice for drafting letters, memos, reports, indexes and bibliographies. Cite it. Chronological lists also use parentheses to enclose numbers, roman numerals, or letters, and they always begin with a colon, use commas, and end with a period. To write more fluidly, we recommend structuring the sentence as such: The second most common use of parentheses involves in-text citations, a formal writing practice that adheres to academic style guides like the American Psychological Association (APA) Publication Manual or the Modern Language Association (MLA) Handbook. The first mention of source: (Surname, 2020). The period is unique among punctuation marks in that, yes, it always goes inside the quotation marks. If you’re using American English, they go inside. When you're using quotation marks, it's hard to know where the adjacent punctuation is supposed to go. It says: "Commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks." Most APA citations parenthesize the author’s last name and year of publication (separated with a comma). Be the first to read new posts and updates about MLA style. It covers such topics as the decimal point, abbreviations, capital letters, punctuation marks, hyphenation, spelling, frequently misused or confused words and Canadian geographical names. While citing direct quotes, APA and MLA formats allow writers to parenthesize page numbers for the second mention and onward (just make sure your citations appear regularly for the same source). Some participants were skeptical about the process: “I don’t put any stock in these ‘dream diaries.’”. The comma and period always go inside a quotation within another quotation when there is no parenthetical reference. In British English, we treat periods and commas the same way. It is also the same for instances where a title within a title comes at the end of a sentence: A new approach to Flannery O’Connor’s short story can be found in the essay “The Uncanny Theology of ‘A Good Man Is Hard to Find.’”. Yagoda also points to the inconsistency of the method used in the United States, which places “other punctuation marks—semicolons, colons, exclamation points, question marks, dashes” outside quotation marks. This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22). Usually, the simplest way to do this is to put all of the source information in parentheses at the end of the sentence (i.e., just before the period). Grammarians refer to periods as “terminal” or “strong punctuation marks” because they mark the end of a sentence or a “full stop.” Unless you end a sentence with a question mark or exclamation point, all sentences must end with a period. #1. Periods Come Inside With only one exception, the period always comes inside closing quotation marks. This placement is traditional in the United States. Subsequent mentions of source: (p. 201) or (pp.201–202). Why do periods and commas go inside quotation marks in MLA style? Read our earlier post on what you can omit when quoting sources. MLA in-text citation for quotations and U.S. conventions of punctuation. If the quotation includes material already in quotation marks, see Section 8.33 of the Publication Manual. Outside of periods and commas, we can use question marks or exclamation points (or “exclamation marks” for British English) wherever necessary inside parentheses. Julio Cortázar wrote many short stories, including ‘La noche boca arriba’, ‘Casa tomada’, and ‘Babas del diablo’. APA: “A complete sentence with sourced information (Surname, p. 201). George Craig on May 27, 2010 2:00 am. The Elements of Typographic Style. In American writing, commas and periods almost always go inside quotation marks. End the quote with its appropriate punctuation mark, and after that, inside parentheses, give the last name of the author and the page number or range without a comma. Parentheses are tricky because they have specific grammar rules for other punctuation marks. For other punctuation marks, where the closing punctuation goes depends on which idea it refers to (the sentence or the quote). MLA requires nuanced source citations, so make sure to check out Purdue OWL’s citation guide if you don’t have an updated MLA Handbook. Those who prefer the British style argue, as does Ben Yagoda in Slate, that “[i]nsinuating a period or comma within the unit alters it in a rather underhanded manner.” It’s important to note, however, that other conventions for altering the typographic display of quotations exist. It gets messier when you have nested quotes. Find it. Terms of Service ● © 2020 Modern Language Association of America. However, using parentheses or em-dashes too often is distracting for readers. For example. In MLA Style, referring to the works of others in your text is done using parenthetical citations. MLA Handbook. Strunk, William, Jr., and E. B. We use periods to mark the end of a sentence and parentheses to insert additional content. For example, we never use a comma before an opening parenthesis, but we can use a comma after the closing parenthesis when necessary. Summary. Similarly, as shown in the Purdue Owl, a typical MLA citation may be, This phenomenon is best referred to as a “cumulative collaboration of evidence” (Pepper). "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). Indent the entire quote 1 inch from the left margin. ————— I was taught to place punctuation inside quotes — either double or single. 3. Bringhurst, Robert. As shown above, we can remove parenthetical information without eliminating the meaning of a sentence. In journalism, the default style guide is AP style. This rule applies even if only one quoted word ends the sentence. End the quote with its appropriate punctuation mark, and after that, inside parentheses, give the last name of the author and the page number or … The only exception for terminal punctuations occurs when a sentence ends with a formal abbreviation or special character. This means that periods and commas are placed INSIDE quotation marks; all other punctuation marks are placed OUTSIDE. In this case, parenthetical sentences do not occur within another whole sentence. In our case, “e.g.,” means “exempli gratia” (‘for example’) and “etc.” means “et cetera” (‘and other things’). "Here's a direct quote" (Smith 8). Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. It works with many types of citation styles such as MLA, Chicago, and AAA, among others. Include the page number at the end of your block quote outside of the ending period. Challenge yourself with the following multiple-choice questions. A new approach to Flannery O’Connor’s short story can be found in the essay ‘The Uncanny Theology of “A Good Man Is Hard to Find”’. For this particular example, it’s correct to treat parenthetical material as an independent clause and use a period inside the brackets. reCAPTCHA helps prevent automated form spam. If, Tanqueray, Humans of New York Star, Brings in Over $1.5 Million in Donations, “How to use parentheses and brackets ( ) [ ], Note: Since the second example now consists of a dependent clause (an incomplete sentence), the. The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text. For example. These marks are available in most word processors, though many people simply use single and double quotation marks: 5’ 10”. Punctuation marks (e.g. In British usage, they can go either inside or outside (in the same way as questions marks and exclamation points in American style, see below). The standard rule in American punctuation is that periods go inside quotation marks, as do most commas, even if the punctuation is not part of the quote. For instance, most people parenthesize their area code and use hyphens to separate local digits of their phone number. At the MLA, we never insert a period after a title ending in a question mark or exclamation point, but we insert a comma if doing so makes a sentence easier to read—for example, when such a title is one item in a series or when the title is contained in a nonrestrictive clause: But when possible, we prefer to reword: The Chicago Manual of Style allows the use of a sentence-terminating period; the MLA … Thus: He said, "We need to tell the boss right away." ¶ Over 1.5 million copies sold! William Strunk, Jr., and E. B. Does the period go inside the quotes (as above)? I can be found on Linkedin. Use periods outside of parentheses when parenthetical material consists of a dependent sentence clause or list. Periods and parentheses are two of the most basic punctuation marks to master for the English language. Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at … Direct quote from page range: (Surname, 2020, pp. This is a paraphrase ("Trouble" 22). We call parenthetical sentences “accessory” because we should be able to remove the bracketed clause without obscuring the sentence’s meaning. APA and MLA style guides require in-text citations for formal writing to avoid plagiarism, direct audiences to sources within a bibliography, and add credibility to your writing. Write it. Direct quote from one page: (Surname, 2020, p. 201). There are no quotation marks around the quotation. Periods and commas are placed outside the prime and double prime marks. If parentheses enclose a whole sentence, place the period inside of the closing parenthesis. Compose bold, clear, mistake-free writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant. ), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page. Does Dr. Lim always say to her students, "You must work harder"? – user54711 Oct 23 '13 at 4:30. This method involves providing relevant source information in parentheses whenever a sentence uses a quotation or paraphrase. However, we can also use parentheses to clarify terminology or provide formal, scientific names. The ellipsis consists of three periods (also known as dot-dot-dot). Phillip asked, "Do you need this book?" Thus, in the following sentence, the comma is placed after taught: “You’ve got to be carefully taught,” wrote Oscar Hammerstein II. This means that periods and commas are placed INSIDE quotation marks; all other punctuation marks are placed OUTSIDE. For example, “(971)-971-9701.”. Alanna Madden is a freelance writer and editor from Portland, Oregon. MLA: “A complete sentence with the second mention of a source (201). See below for a few examples: “Insert quotation here” (Author Last Name page number). However, using parentheses in this manner is somewhat uncommon for formal writing. The CMS goes on to describe exceptions for textual studies and British usage, but for practical purposes, writers of American English can go with the “ALWAYS put a period INSIDE the quotes” mantra. Inside. When you're using quotation marks, it's hard to know where the adjacent punctuation is supposed to go. American style guides such as Associated Press (AP), Modern Language Association (MLA) and The Chicago Manual of Style (Chicago) all follow the American rule when it comes to commas and periods. “I bought a new jacket yesterday,” Tammy said. If only select words or partial phrases are quoted, the period should be outside the quotes. commas, periods, etc.) > When a sentence ends in a single quote, is the period placed inside or outside of that single quote? Periods Come Inside With only one exception, the period always comes inside closing quotation marks. Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at … should appear after the parenthetical citation; Question marks/exclamation points should appear within the quotation marks if they are part of the quote, but after the parenthetical citation if they are not. 16th ed., U of Chicago P, 2010. For example. ... Each element is followed by a comma or a period (as shown), though the final element in a Works Cited entry is always followed by a period. Likewise, a terminal ellipsis implies that the whole statement continues for a while longer. White. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference in the works-cited list. The point of conventions is that they provide common tools for understanding, so if you are preparing material in a British context, follow British rules. To avoid writing the same title throughout your work, introduce the full title with an official abbreviation in parentheses, and then use the acronym for there on out. Follow the same formatting that was used in the works cited list, such as quotation marks. Your writing, at its best Compose bold, clear, mistake-free writing with Grammarly's AI-powered writing assistant There are no quotation marks around the quotation. When multiple quotation marks are used for quotations within quotations, keep the quotation marks together (put periods and commas inside both; … Luckily, when it comes to periods and commas, the answer to whether they go inside or outside the quotation mark is much simpler. The MLA Handbook notes, “By convention, commas and periods that directly follow quotations go inside the closing quotation marks” (88). Place periods and commas within closing single or double quotation marks. This rule applies even if only one quoted word ends the sentence. For example. ... an anthology, include the title in quotations marks instead. All other punctuation marks—semicolons, colons, question marks, and exclamation points—go outside a closing quotation mark, except when they are part of the quoted material (89). If you reference a range of pages, use “pp.” and separate page numbers with an en-dash. 1. MLA: Block Quotations. Place other punctuation marks inside quotation marks only when they are part of the quoted material. In fact, we could have written, “I’m a complete sentence, a fun one at that, but…” or “I’m a complete sentence–– a fun one at that–– but…”. Jazz on January 12, 2010 8:18 pm. Or after the citation (as below)? Parentheses are round brackets that we use to provide in-text citations, lists, or side-notes to a sentence (like this, for example). If the question is part of the quote, the mark goes inside the quotation marks. The Chicago Manual of Style Online is the venerable, time-tested guide to style, usage, and grammar in an accessible online format. (Make sure that the period following the title appears inside the closing quotation mark.) White, writing in 1959, noted that “[t]ypographical usage dictates the comma be inside the marks, though logically it seems not to belong there” (36). See the below examples and also the relevant sections in the MLA handbook, The Bedford Handbook , and the use of quotations in the sample papers on reserve. Available for fall 2020 and spring 2021 courses. Be sure to specify the source in the introduction phrase/sentence, which ends in either a colon or a period. 8th ed., Modern Language Association of America, 2016. The long quotation is indented half an inch from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text. She reported that the boss was, in her words, "miffed." If a period or comma belongs to the quote, you put it inside of the quotation marks: They said, "No, you have to submit it to the Board for approval." Do periods go inside or outside of parentheses? Yagoda, Ben. “The Rise of ‘Logical Punctuation’.” Slate, 12 May 2011, www.slate.com/articles/life/the_good_word/2011/05/the_rise_of_logical_punctuation.html. No period … If the author's name is not given, then use the first word or words of the title. Alanna specializes in data and news reporting and enjoys writing about art, culture, and STEM-related topics. Place periods inside of the parentheses when parenthetical material consists of a complete sentence. Example of a Long Quotation If parentheses enclose a whole sentence, place the period inside of the closing parenthesis. MLA: “A complete sentence with sourced information (Surname 201). All parenthetical citations within the MLA style follow these rules: Citation occurs at the end of a sentence. Required commas and periods follow the citations, except when the quote is a block quote (88). If adding accessory content is important for tone, try reconstructing the sentence into two statements or incorporating footnotes or endnotes. But if you include a direct quote, be sure to add the abbreviation “p.” for “page” with the page number. 1959. Basic in-text citations for MLA: First mention or direct quote from the source: (Surname 201). For example. The period that ends the sentence is … If the quote is not a question or exclamation, use a comma and not a period before the second quotation marks. Place the punctuation outside the closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the whole sentence. If a citation in parentheses follows the quotation, the period follows the citation. (Make sure that the period following the title appears inside the closing quotation mark.) The final period or comma goes inside the quotation marks, even if it is not a part of the quoted material, unless the quotation is followed by a citation. Feeling ready to master periods and parentheses for your writing? While this example demonstrates commas inside quotation marks, the period is not inside quotation marks because the quotation marks are not at the end of the sentence. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? APA: “A complete sentence with the second mention of a source (p. 201). Thus, in the following sentence, the comma is placed after taught: “You’ve got to be carefully taught,” wrote Oscar Hammerstein II. For example. Regardless of the type of information you cite, all in-text citations occur at the end of a sentence while placing a period after the closing parenthesis. The period goes outside of the quotation mark when using a parenthetical reference. For instance, He said, “I’m going to the mall.” However, this is not the case for all end punctuation marks. For example, if the sentence is a question, but the words in … The period at the end of the quotation comes before your in-text citation as opposed to after, as it does with regular quotations. Technically, the mark designating feet is a prime; the mark designating inches is a double prime. If an ellipsis occurs at the beginning of a quote, that means the whole sentence started before the quoted phrase began. The rule is the same for a list of titles: Julio Cortázar wrote many short stories, including “La noche boca arriba,” “Casa tomada,” and “Babas del diablo.”. For example, Parentheses are also necessary for writing chronological lists or phone numbers. According to the OWL MLA Formatting and Style Guide at Purdue University, the punctuation (such as a period or comma) should go inside the quotation marks when the punctuation is part of the quote, or outside the quotation marks when the punctuation is not part of the quote. When a quotation is placed at the end of a sentence, but the quoted material is only part of a larger sentence, authorities differ on the use of ellipsis points. How we cite information also depends on the source media (e.g., television shows, essays, books, dictionaries, websites, etc.). But since we inevitably use periods and parentheses within the same sentence, it’s essential to learn how to use them correctly. If a superscript footnote number is used, it follows the period and the quotation marks. 4th ed., Pearson, 2000. In American English, periods and commas always go inside the closing quotation mark; semicolons, colons, asterisks, and dashes always go outside the closing quotation mark; and question marks and exclamation points require that you analyze the sentence and make a decision based on context. But the editors of The Chicago Manual of Style note that “[e]xceptions” to the British style “are widespread” (309), so in terms of consistency, neither approach is better than the other. The Canadian Style gives concise answers to questions concerning written English in the Canadian context. Additionally, if you cite more than one source at a time, separate each citation with a semicolon (see below). The Elements of Style. See the below examples and also the relevant sections in the MLA handbook, The Bedford Handbook, and the use of quotations in the sample papers on For standard abbreviations, such as “pacific time zone,” enclose “PT” with parentheses when necessary. Periods and parentheses are two of the most basic punctuation marks to master for the English language. She reported that the boss was, in her words, "miffed." Subsequent mentions or direct quotes from the same source: (201). Question marks, however, are often handled differently. Citation is enclosed in parentheses. MLA: Block Quotations. For example, note numbers are omitted, end-of-line hyphenation is not reproduced, and double quotation marks in the source are converted to single marks.1 The imperative to transcribe the wording of quotations exactly, in other words, is compatible with conventions for integrating them into one’s own prose. Now, you might notice how we use periods inside the parentheses while abbreviating “e.g.,” and “etc.” As long as the abbreviations are necessary and correct, there’s no problem using periods within any parenthetical list or statement. Some are included within the quotation marks, if it makes sense, and other are outside of it. Place a question mark or exclamation point within closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the quotation itself. In other words, in the predigital era, when fonts were fixed-width, setting a period or comma outside the quotation marks would have created an unsightly gap: But Robert Bringhurst, writing in the era of digital fonts, maintains that it generally “makes no typographic difference” if quotation marks “follow commas and periods or precede them” (87). ... Each element is followed by a comma or a period (as shown), though the final element in a Works Cited entry is always followed by a period. The submit button will be disabled until you complete the CAPTCHA. Periods stay outside of parentheses for parenthetical sentences that consist of an incomplete sentence or list. #2. If we include a parenthetical list inside of a sentence, we always use commas to separate list-objects.