[14] The geographical treatise Šahrestānīhā ī Ērānšahr written in Middle Persian mentions the old name of the fortress – Wērōy-pahr (The Gruzinian Guard): "šahrestan [ī] kūmīs [ī] panj-burg až-i dahāg pad šabestān kard. Derbent resembles a huge museum and has magnificent mountains and shore nearby, and therefore possesses much touristic potential, further increased by UNESCO's classification of the citadel, ancient city and fortress as a World Heritage Site in 2003; however, instability in the region has halted development. The walls, reaching to the sea, date from the 6th century, Sassanid dynasty period. 'Gate of Gates')[17] simply as "al-Bāb" (Arabic: ٱلْبَاب‎, lit. [1] In the late 4th century CE, Albania passed under Sasanian influence and control; in the 5th century, it was a Sasanian border fortress and the seat of a march-warden (marzban).[1]. During periods when the Sasanians were distracted by war with the Byzantines or protracted battles with the Hephthalites in the eastern provinces, the northern tribes succeeded in advancing into the Caucasus. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. Other shrines include the 17th-century Kyrhlyar mosque, the Bala mosque and the 18th-century Chertebe mosque. The first mention of Jews in Derbent in modern times is by a German traveler, Adam Olearius, in the 17th century. Nice restaurant facilities nearby as well. Derbent has a cold semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSk). Out of the window next to the reception desk (3rd floor) you have a great view of the castle. The town has a sea port, and a railway station on the line Makhachkala - Baku. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. The fortification complex was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003. When intact, the wall had a height of 9 m (29 ft) and a thickness of about 3 m (10 ft) and, with its iron gates and numerous watch-towers, defended Persia's frontier.[22]. [26] This account seems to be corroborated by the Spanish Arab Ḥamīd Moḥammad Ḡarnāṭī, who reported in 1130 that Derbent was populated by many ethnic groups, including a large Persian-speaking population.[28]. A large portion of the walls and several watchtowers still remain in reasonable shape. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. (. This settlement initially covered only the more protected northeastern side of the hill (some 4–5 hectares), but over the 6th–4th centuries BCE expanded to cover its entire surface (c. 15 hectares). Derbent stayed under Iranian rule, while occasionally briefly taken by the Ottoman Turks such as in 1583 after the Battle of Torches and the Treaty of Constantinople, till the course of the 19th century, when the Russians occupied the city and wider Iranian-ruled swaths of Dagestan.[32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. [26] In fact, a deliberate policy of “Persianizing” Derbent and the eastern Caucasus in general can be traced over many centuries, from Khosrow I to the Safavid shahs Ismail I, and ʿAbbās the Great. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with … Derbent's star attraction is the sprawling hilltop Naryn-Kala Citadel complex, which boasts impressive, powerful stone towers and walls. The old Armenian Church, now used as a venue and Museum, Russian Orthodox Church of the Intercession, Putin visiting an exhibition dedicated to the 2000th anniversary of Derbent in the State Historical Museum, Почта России. The main attraction - the fortress complex of Derbent. The chief rabbi of Derbent, Obadiah Isakov, was badly injured in an assassination attempt on July 25, 2013, sparking concerns of further acts of anti-Semitism targeting the Jewish community. Nadir Shah of Persia forced many Jews to adopt Islam. Derbent is well served by public transport, with its own harbor, a railway going south to Baku, and the Baku to Rostov-on-Don road. ... Derbent. During the reign of Khosrow I the fortress was built. In the early 16th century the kingdom of Shirvan was conquered by Shah Ismail of the Safavid dynasty. AC worked well. 564. That's according to the city's acting mayor Rustambek Pirmagomedov, who has pointed the finger at the federal government for neglecting Derbent's fortifications, in what he called a "big emergency for the city.". However, the city was lost once again to the northern Kipchaks. During the Persian Expedition of 1796, Derbent was stormed by Russian forces under General Valerian Zubov, but the Russians were forced to retreat due to internal political issues,[39] making it fall under Persian rule again. To the south lies the seaward extremity of the Caucasian wall (fifty metres long), otherwise known as Alexander's Wall, blocking the narrow pass of the Iron Gate or Caspian Gates (Portae Athanae or Portae Caspiae). Russia. The Caliph Harun al-Rashid lived in Derbent and brought it into great repute as a seat of the arts and commerce. [11] Due to its strategic location, over the course of history, the city changed ownership many times, particularly among the Persian, Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms. M. S. Saidov, ed., Katalog arabskikh rukopiseĭ Instituta IYaL Dagestanskogo filiala AN SSSR (Catalogue of Arabic manuscripts in the H.L.L. [1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the City of Derbent—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a consequence of the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the resulting Treaty of Gulistan of 1813, Derbent and wider Dagestan were forcedly and irrevocably ceded by Qajar Iran to the Russian Empire. In the 19th century, the city passed from Iranian into Russian hands by the Treaty of Gulistan of 1813.[12]. «О статусе и границах муниципальных образований Республики Дагестан», в ред. Institute of the Dāḡestān branch of the A.N. [30][31] The Holy Saviour Armenian Church still rises up in the skyline, though it is used as the Museum of Carpet, Arts and Crafts today due to the decline in the Armenian population. «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Over the centuries the city changed hands often. Hotels near Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala; Hotels near Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent; Hotels near Derbent Dzhuma-Mosque The fortress in Derbent guarded the Caspian Gates -- the only way through the wall. Architectural Complex Citadel Naryn-Kala: 5000 years of history - See 108 traveler reviews, 455 candid photos, and great deals for Derbent, Russia, at Tripadvisor. [1] As a municipal division, the City of Derbent is incorporated as Derbent Urban Okrug. Derbent became a strong military outpost and harbour of the Sassanid Empire. During the 5th and 6th centuries, Derbent also became an important center for spreading the Christian faith in the Caucasus. The view of Derbent is great and the actual fortress itself is very well taken care of. The 21st Shirvanshah king, Akhsitan I, briefly reconquered the city. According to Arab historians, Derbent, with population exceeding 50,000, was the largest city of the 9th century Caucasus. [14] The Darband fortress was certainly the most prominent Sasanian defensive construction in the Caucasus and could have been erected only by an extremely powerful central government. The rulers of Shirvan, called the Shirvanshahs, had attempted, and on numerous times, succeeded, to conquer Derbend since the 18th Shirvanshah king, Afridun I, was appointed as the governor of the city. Excavations on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea, opposite to Derbent, revealed the Great Wall of Gorgan, the eastern counterpart to the wall and fortifications of Derbent. The Soviet novelist Yury Krymov named a fictional motor tanker after the city in his book The Tanker "Derbent". Movses Kagankatvatsi left a graphic description of the sack of Derbent by the hordes of Tong Yabghu of the Western Turkic Khaganate in 627. Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №81, 12 апреля 2002 г. Народное Собрание Республики Дагестан. People began to settle in the territory of Dagestan more than a million years ago (the sites of ancient people Aynikab 1-2, Muhkay 1-2, Gegalashur 1-3, Rugudzha). The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. Derbent is the southernmost city in Russia, occupying the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian steppes to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. Derbent's Jewry suffered during the wars in the 18th century. In 2003, UNESCO included the old part of Derbent with traditional buildings in the World Heritage List, highlighting the following sites: Derbent Wall- a double wall built in t… Population: 119,200 (2010 Census);[3] 101,031 (2002 Census);[9] 78,371 (1989 Census).[10]. After the Timurud invasion, Ibrahim I of Shirvan, the 33rd Shirvanshah, managed to keep the kingdom of Shirvan independent. [40] For background see Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast. (The city of Kūmīs of five towers Aži Dahag made it his own harem. Закона №43 от 30 апреля 2015 г. View of Derbent city from the fortress wall (Dagestan, Russia Russian officials acknowledge that grinding poverty in places like … This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. The abode of the Parthians was there. Derbent claims to be the oldest city in Russia with historical documentation dating to the 8th century BCE, making it one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World. History of Derbent and the millennia old historical and cultural relations it has with Iran. [48] In 2016, the Jewish population was down to 1,345.[49]. Derbent Hostels; Derbent Beach Hotels; Derbent Family Hotels; Near Landmarks. Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, Historic Monuments of Novgorod and Surroundings, Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Surroundings, Traditional Persian residential architecture, Traditional water sources of Persian antiquity, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Derbent&oldid=989635831, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, Articles with Russian-language sources (ru), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from EB9, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica, Articles with Armenian-language sources (hy), Infobox mapframe without OSM relation ID on Wikidata, Pages using infobox settlement with image map1 but not image map, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Lezgian-language text, Articles containing Azerbaijani-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. He conquered the city of Derbend in 1437. On the cultural front, there is a Lezgin drama theater (named after S. Stalsky). Derbent is renown for its citadel (“Naryn-Kala” or “Dagh Bary” in Persian) and its imposing walls that date from the 6th century CE. After the Arab conquest of Persia various Arabic inscriptions were also made on the walls. From a small early Bronze-age settlement to one of the biggest medieval cities of the Eastern Europe, the city of Derbent has a unique urban structure. The city has a well-preserved citadel (Narin-kala), enclosing an area of 4.5 hectares (11 acres), enclosed by strong walls. Today, Derbent is an outstanding monument of defense architecture. The city is home to machine building, food, textile, fishing and fishery supplies, construction materials and wood industries. Derbent is the southern-most city in Russia, and over 1,500km south of Moscow. Derbent - the oldest Djuma-mosque in North Caucasus. [26] According to the account in the later "Darband-nāma", after construction of the fortifications Khosrow I “moved much folk here from Persia”,[27] relocating about 3,000 families from the interior of Persia in the city of Derbent and neighboring villages. Derbent (Russian: Дербе́нт; Persian: دربند‎; Lezgian: Кьвевар, Цал; Azerbaijani: Dərbənd; Avar: Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend,[8] is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea. It is often identified with the Gates of Alexander, a legendary barrier supposedly built by Alexander the Great in the Caucasus. Derbent Travel Guide; All Derbent Hotels; Derbent Hotel Deals; Last Minute Hotels in Derbent; By Hotel Type. The region is named after the ancient Iranian-speaking tribes of the Massagetae people, who inhabited this region from around the 1st century AD to the 7th century AD. In the 14th century, Derbent was occupied by Timur's armies. Despite that, the emirate outlived its rival and continued to flourish at the time of the Mongol invasion in 1239. Закон №16 от 10 апреля 2002 г. Built in the 6th century during the reign of Persian emperor Khosrow I and maintained by various later Arab, Turkish and Persian regimes, the fortifications comprise three distinct elements: the citadel of Naryn-Kala at Derbent, the twin long walls connecting it with the Caspian Sea in the east, and the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, running from Derbent to the Caucasus foothills in the west. Peter I conquered Derbent during the Persian campaign, but later it went to Persia again, and finally joined the Russian Empire only in 1813. Similar Sassanian defensive fortifications there—massive forts, garrison towns, long walls—also run from the sea to the mountains. Derbent is located in Russia’s Dagestan region, on the western coast of the Caspian Sea. As Shah Ismail incorporated all the Shirvan possessions, he also inherited Derbend. Russia. In 654, Derbent was captured by the Arabs, who called it the Gate of Gates (Bab al-Abwab),[29] following their invasion of Persia. 'The Gate') or as "Bāb al-Hadid" (Arabic: بَاب ٱلْحَدِيد‎, lit. The walls of that settlement were some 2 metres (6.6 ft) high and maximally 7 metres (23 ft) thick, with evidence of repeated destruction and rebuilding throughout the period. [47] There has been a fortress here since very ancient times and sections of the current structure date back to the 6th c ad. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Дагестан», в ред. The length … Опубликован: "Дагестанская правда", №8, 15 февраля 2005 г. one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the World, Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Caspian Coast, List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia, "База данных показателей муниципальных образований", "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. 'Barred gate', from dar “gate” + band “bar,” lit., “barred gate”[13]), referring to the adjacent pass. Ibrahim I revived Shirvan's fortunes, and through his cunning politics managed to continue without paying tribute. As mentioned by the Encyclopedia Iranica, ancient Iranian language elements were absorbed into the everyday speech of the population of Dagestan and Derbent especially during the Sassanian era, and many remain current. Think Again, Moscow Says", "Bitter Choices: Loyalty and Betrayal in the Russian Conquest of the North Caucasus", "Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent", Правительство РД — Дербент — Муниципальные районы и городские округа, "Saving Another Dying Jewish Language Before It's Too Late", "После покушения на раввина евреи Дагестана живут в страхе", Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? [5], The main ethnic groups are (2002 Census):[43][44]. It is the southernmost city in Russia, and it is the second-most important city of Dagestan. It lies on the federal highway M29 (Rostov-na-Donu - Baku). [14] The modern name is a Persian word (دربند Darband) meaning "gateway", which came into use in the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia,[22] however, Derbent was probably already into the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. ), In the 1886 population counting of the Dagestan Oblast of Russia's Caucasus Viceroyalty, of the 15,265 inhabitants Derbent had, 8,994 (58,9%) were of Iranian descent (Russian: персы) thus comprising an absolute majority in the town.[41]. To the north of the town is the monument of the Kirk-lar, or forty heroes, who fell defending Dagestan against the Arabs in 728. This emirate often fought losing wars with the neighboring Christian state of Sarir, allowing Sarir to manipulate Derbent's politics on occasion. Media in category "Derbent wall" The following 10 files are in this category, out of 10 total. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Derbent serves as the administrative center of Derbentsky District, even though it is not a part of it. In the reign of Yazdgird, the son of Šabuhr made it during the invasion of the Čōl, at the boundary of the Gruzinian Guard.)". The fortress was built under direction of the Sassanid emperor Khosrow (Chosroes) I.[23]. The wall of Darial Pass which is between Gorgia and southern Russia in the Caucasus mountain range. Hardliner Islamic groups shot tourists in 2015. [18] A similar name, also meaning "Iron Gate", was used by Turkic peoples, in the form of "Demirkapi".[19][20]. The first Sasanian attempt to seal off the road along the Caspian seacoast at Darband by means of a mud-brick wall has been dated in the reign of Yazdegerd II (438–457 AD).[14]. Крепость Нарын-кала. Derbent is derived from Persian "Darband" (Persian: دربند‎, lit. Derbent is situated on the shore of Caspian Sea, at a spurs of Tabasaran Mountains - a part of Great Caucasus. This is a must-visit for understanding the Tradition also connects it to the Great Wall of … Idem and A. R. Shikhsaidov, “Derbend-name (k istorii izucheniya)” (Darband-nāma. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. After the Russian conquest, many Jews of rural Dagestan fled to Derbent, which became the spiritual center of the Mountain Jews. In the 1st century BCE, Derbent became incorporated in the kingdom of Caucasian Albania, probably as its northernmost possession. Being briefly taken by the Russians as a result of the Persian expedition of 1722–23 by Peter the Great, the 1735 Treaty of Ganja, formed by Imperial Russia and Safavid Iran (de facto ruled by Nader Shah), forced Russia to return Derbent and its bastion to Iran. [45] The Jewish traveler Benjamin of Tudela mentions Jews living in Derbent in the 12th century, and Christian traveler Wilhelm of Rubruquis writes about a Jewish community in the 13th century. This is an incredible site over 15 centuries old, set right btw the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mtns. Its defense complex impresses us with its grandeur, mightiness and power. The only other practicable crossing of the Caucasus ridge was over the Darial Gorge. Россия - panoramio (2).jpg 3,888 × 2,592; 3.45 MB. Derbent experienced a period of considerable prosperity in the first three centuries of the Common Era, but the resumption of nomad raids in the 4th century (the Alans and later the Huns) meant that it quickly reverted to its role as a frontier post and a "symbolic boundary between nomadic and agrarian ways of life". Dagestan. It is clear that the most important thing in Derbent is the fortress, well preserved, although rebuilt many times. [46] In 1989, there were 13,000 Jews in the city, but most emigrated after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. It owes its rich history to its strategic position, along the travel route between Europe and the Middle East, on the border of Europe and Asia, where the mountains of the Caucasus almost arrive at the coast leaving a narrow 3-km strip of plain. The Sassanid fortress does not exist any more, as the famous Derbent fortress as it stands today was built from the 12th century onward. I stayed at the Hotel Elit for one night in July 2015. A UNESCO World Heritage site in Dagestan partially collapsed after heavy rain. The Jewish population numbered 2,200 in 1897 (15% of total population) and 3,500 in 1903. The modern city is built near the western shores of the Caspian Sea, south of the Rubas River, on the slopes of the Tabasaran Mountains (part of the Bigger Caucasus range). [24] Some say that the level of the Caspian was formerly higher and that the lowering of the water level opened an invasion route that had to be fortified. Maskut (also known as Mazkut, Muskur, Mazkat, Mashkut, or Maskat) is a historical region located along the western coast of the Caspian Sea, laying on today's republics of Azerbaijan and Dagestan (Russia).. Derbent played an important role in the development of the Silk Roads; it was located on the Caspian trail, which was of strategic importance, connecting the Europe and Western Asia. Derbent is the oldest cultural center of Dagestan Republic, the birthplace of its spiritual and material culture, it is where art, art crafts, written language, values of Islam and other world religions spread from. Derbent claims to be one of the oldest cities in the world and the southernmost one of the Russian Federation. Закона №106 от 30 декабря 2013 г. The Shirvanshahs dynasty existed as independent or a vassal state, from 861 until 1538; longer than any other dynasty in the Islamic world. His successor,[citation needed] Böri Shad, proved unable to consolidate Tong Yabghu's conquests, and the city was retaken by the Persians, who held it as an integral domain until the Muslim Arab conquest. Закон №6 от 13 января 2005 г. There are also various Middle Persian (Pahlavi) inscriptions on the walls of the fortress and Northern/Southern walls inside the city. Derbent occupies the narrow gateway between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains connecting the Eurasian Steppe to the north and the Iranian Plateau to the south. The Derbenid dynasty, being a cadet dynasty of Shirvan, inherited the throne of Shirvan in the 15th century. The wall in Dagistan Russia also known as Derbent on the coast of the Caspian sea, it is a border fortress between two walls stretching from the mountains to the sea. māniš [ī] *pārsīgān ānōh būd. [14], The 20-meter-high (66 ft) walls with thirty north-looking towers are believed to belong to the time of Kavadh's son, Khosrau I, who also directed the construction of Derbent's fortress.[23]. Derbent wall‎ (10 F) Media in category "Derbent Fortress" The following 164 files are in this category, out of 164 total. The impression of antiquity evoked by these fortifications led many Arab historians to connect them with Khosrow I and to include them among the seven wonders of the world. On the history of research),” in Vostochnye istochniki po istorii Dagestana (Eastern sources on the history of Dāḡestān), Makhachkala, 1980, pp. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. Дагестан. Map of the Sasanian fortifications at Derbent, by Roderich von Erckert, The citadel of Naryn-Kala and the walls of Derbent, Section of the "mountain wall" of Dagh-Bary, Background and first fortifications at Derbent, Creation of the Sasanian fortification complex, BBC: Dagestan gunmen kill one at south Russia fortress, UNESCO: Citadel, Ancient City and Fortress Buildings of Derbent, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Fortifications_of_Derbent&oldid=989635833, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 November 2020, at 03:36. 'Gate of Iron'). Том 1", http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, https://web.archive.org/web/20180726010024/http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/doc_2018/bul_dr/mun_obr2018.rar, "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек", "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров", Derbent - Russia’s oldest city: 5,000 and counting, "Derbent as Russia's Oldest City? [1] Archaeological evidence points to the establishment of a fortified settlement on the Derbent hill as early as the late 8th century BCE, probably under the impact of Scythian raids. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. Indeed, here the Caucasus Mountains most closely approach the Caspian Sea, forming a narrow “neck”, the movement through which is easy to control. Derbent's location on a narrow, three-kilometer strip of land in the North Caucasus between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus mountains is strategic in the entire Caucasus region. Think Again, Moscow Says, People's Assembly of the Republic of Dagestan, Derbent - Russia's oldest city: 5,000 and counting. The Shirvanshahs integrated the city so closely with their political structure that a new branch of the Shirvan dynasty emerged from Derbend, the Derbenid dynasty. The Sassanids had also brought Armenians from Syunik to help protect the pass from invaders; as Arab rule weakened in the region at the end of the ninth century, the Armenians living there were able to establish a kingdom, which lasted until the early years of the thirteenth century. They killed 1 person and injured 12. Jews began to settle in Derbent in ancient times. «О статусе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала", статусе и границах внутригородских районов в составе городского округа с внутригородским делением "Город Махачкала" и о внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Республики Дагестан». Local authorities claim they’d warned Russia’s Culture Ministry about the condition of the Orta-Kapi gate in Derbent, the country’s second-oldest city. They transformed it into an important administrative center and introduced Islam to the area. The wall, also known as the Caspian Gates, has been identified with two locations: the Pass of Derbent, Russia, or with the Pass of Dariel, a gorge forming a pass between Russia and Georgia with the Caspian Sea to the east. The immense wall, with a height of up to twenty meters and a thickness of about 10 feet (3 meters), stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, thirty north-looking towers stretched for forty kilometers between the Caspian Sea and the Caucasus Mountains, effectively blocking the passage across the Caucasus. Historical attractions include the baths, the cisterns, the old cemeteries, the caravanserai, the 18th-century Khan's mausoleum, as well as several mosques. padxwadayīh [ī] yazdgird ī šabuhrān kard andar tāzišn ī čōl wērōy-pahr [ī] an ālag. During the Khazars' reign, they played an important part in the life of the city. A prison. [1], From the 4th century BCE, the settlement began to expand beyond the hill fortress, which became a citadel to an expanding city. The bed was comfy. The name of the defensive complex Naryn-Kala (the citadel and the Derbent wall) means “narrow gate”. Furthermore, Ibrahim also greatly increased the limits of his state. Historically, this position allowed the rulers of Derbent to control land traffic between the Eurasian Steppe and the Middle East. Already in Classical Antiquity, the settlement of Derbent and its wider region (the "Caspian Gates") were known for their strategic location between the Caspian Sea and the eastern foothills of the Caucasus Mountains, separating the settled regions south of the Caucasus from the nomadic peoples dominating the Pontic–Caspian steppe to the north. In the middle of the 20th century, Jews constituted about a third of the population of Derbent. In 1747, Derbent became the capital of the Derbent Khanate of the same name. Derbent is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea Derbent city view from above. The location is central (modern Cinema is next door - there is a "russian" KFC and burger restaurant). The current fortification and walls were built by the Persian Sassanian Empire as a defensive structure against hostile nomadic people in the north, and continuously repaired or improved by later Arab, Mongol, Timurid, Shirvan and Iranian kingdoms until the early course of the 19th century, as long as its military function lasted. The Fortifications of Derbent (also transcribed as Darband) are one of the fortified defense lines built by the Persian Sasanian Empire to protect the eastern passage of the Caucasus Mountains (the "Caspian Gates") against the attacks of the nomadic peoples of the Pontic–Caspian steppe. of the U.S.S.R.) I, Moscow, 1977. It is the center of Russian brandy production. The Persian name for the city came into use at the end of the 5th or the beginning of the 6th century AD, when the city was re-established by Kavadh I of the Sassanid dynasty of Persia, but Derbent was probably already in the Sasanian sphere of influence as a result of the victory over the Parthians and the conquest of Caucasian Albania by Shapur I, the second shah of the Sassanid Persians. Дербент. Until the Russians conquered Derbent in the 1800s, the wall remained a crucial point in the city's military security. The educational infrastructure includes a university as well as several technical schools.
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